With so many different types of flours it can mean you get a bit mixed up with one or another, and if you can replace them with another type while you are baking.
Well apparently the basic rule is that they differ primarily based on protein content, which affects the final texture of the baked good you are making.
All-purpose flour has 10-12% protein. Cake flour has 6-8% protein. If you dont have cake flour, you can substitute ¾ cup sifted all-purpose flour plus 2 tablespoons cornstarch.
Bread flour has 12-14% protein; the high protein content causes the bread to rise and gives it shape and structure.
High-gluten flour, has an even higher protein content than bread flour and gives baked goods like bagels its characteristic chewy texture.